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WHO-TDR (+NTDs)


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  1. List the 7 targeted disease for eradication by WHO. Classify these diseases according to Protoazoan, bacterial, helminthes and nematodes Q. Of the 7 WHO-TDR, which of them are of protozoan origin, helminthic origin, etc
  2. Of the WHO-TDR, which one is the most important and why?
  3. Tropical diseases vs diseases of prosperity, affluence, power and poverty (+cultural). B.
  4. WHO-TDR, launched in 1972
  5. Adetokunbo Lucas was the first director (for 10 years)
  6. Mandated to identify and prioritise leading tropical diseases for control and/or eradication.

THE WHO-TDR DISEASES (mnemonic: Ms Ft LLO)

  1. Malaria (Plasmodium sp. Protozoa)
  2. Schistosomiasis (Trematodes) (sh, sm, sj)
  3. Filariasis , Nematode, (Onchocerciasis, Wucheriasis and loasis, etc).
  4. Trypanosomiasis, Protozoa (African Sleeping Sickness (Two) and American type).
  5. Leishmaniasis, Protoazoa (cutaneous, mucocutaneous and visceral types).
  6. Leprosy (Bacterium).
  7. Dracunculiasis, Nematode.

NB: i. Other possible inclusions today? (TB, HIV/ AIDS, POLIO?) ii. NTDs iii. Ebola (EVD)?? iv. Covid-19??

Criteria for inclusion

  1. Morbidity
  2. Mortality
  3. Tools: vaccine, drugs and diagnostic methods
  4. Socio-ecobomic impact to justify investment on research for production of tools
  5. Feasibility, sustainability
  6. Neglect, poverty, ignorance and political will.

Why malaria is the most important NTD

  1. Morbidity and Mortality
  2. Inadequacy of tools (vaccine, drugs, diagnosis)
  3. Socio-economic impact
  4. Political instability/ Lack of political commitment
  5. Drug-resistance (Plasmodium to Chloroquine, etc) 6. Insecticide resistant Anopheles mosquitoes 7. Plasmodium spp diversity and virulence.
  6. Mosquito factors (insecticide resistance)
  7. Lack of vaccine
  8. Lack of ideal drug, toxicity, cost, etc
  9. Cumbersome diagnostic procedures (Technical, slow, invasive, expensive)
  10. Inadequate/ poorly motivated man power
  11. Deplorable environmental condition conducive for mosquito breeding
  12. Poverty, ignorance, neglect, lack of political will, taboos (Adverse SocioCultural Observances).
  13. Mosquito plasticity/ vectoral capacity
  14. Availability of susceptible hosts
  15. Rapid population morbidity
  16. Population aggregation - natural and man made disasters, insecurity and insurgencies
  17. Distinct mosquito behaviours - anthropophyllic, endophilic, endophagic and reproductive capacity.

Why GW has best prospect of eradication

  • It is transmitted exclusively by drinking water which has been contaminated by an infected person. Thus, the source of infection is identifiable.
  • Man is the exclusive reservoir host.
  • The life span of Guinea worm is one year (of Schisto's 35 years)
  • The geographical spread, magnitude and transmission site are relatively limited and focal.
  • The diagnosis is non-technical, non-invasive, easy and known by villagers.

NB: Guinea worm has two striking peculiarities among parasites: 

  1. The male are never seen ordinarily.
  2. The adult female emerges through the skin and thus visible. This peculiarity makes conclusive diagnosis very...

 

Guinea worm is eradicable because:  

  • The development of guinea worm is cyclic but non-propagative. Thus, the infection is non-cumulative in either the Cyclops or man.
  • The acquisition of infection is by the consumption of contaminated water which is passive. Thus, the dissemination of the infection is relatively less evasive and more controllable (cf. Blackfly, Mosquito, Tse-tse fly, snail with wide/ unrestricted movement range).
  • There are multiple proven inter...
  • There is a united global commitment led by WHO to eradicate Dracunculiasis.

Among partners involved and collaborating actively are: 

  1. UNICEF
  2. The Carter Center
  3. UNDP
  4. World Bank
  5. NGO's (Yakubu Gowon Center)
  6. Stake holders e.g. (FGN, states, LGA, communities).
  • Safe water supply, use and maintenance are necessary and sufficient to eradicate Guinea worm permanently, cost effectively and rapidly.

 

  1. The most easily eradicable Tropical disease is? (GW disease)
  2. Why?
  3. Name a parasite disease that has been eradicated in Nigeria without using either chemotherapy or vaccine. ii. Give 5 reasons why the eradication was feasible.
  • List four core strategies used in Nigeria to eliminate the disease.
    • Health education
    • Digging of well and boreholes. Etc.
  1. List 5 major benefits of Guinea worm eradication in Nigeria.